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Geographic location

Located in the Songchayu and Xiyu mountainous area of Tongguan County
The mining district falls within a system in China classified as being prone to earthquakes with an intensity of “7 degrees”


Average annual precipitation from 700 to 900 millimetres
Mostly occurring from Jul to Sep Average annual temperature is 11.8°C
Non-frost season is about 172 days

Groundwater quality

With calcium carbonate, the ground water quality is HCO₃-Ca
pH value between 7 and 8 The hydrogeology in the project area has been determined as simple

Geotechnical Engineering

Rock type
  • The ores in the mining area are gold- bearing quartz veins
  • The adjacent rocks are mainly Archaean Taihua Group, a suite of intermediate to mafic volcanic and volcanoclastic units and clastic sedimentary sequences that have deformed and metamorphosed into an assemblage of gneisses, amphibolites, granulites, and schists
  • The ores and the adjacent rock are hard rocks and usually stable
Geotechnical conditions
  • The rocks and ores are mostly intact with high compressive strength, and the corresponding roofs and floors are quite stable
  • The geotechnical conditions in the mining area are considered to be of medium-high quality
  • No soft inter-bedding sighted either in the rocks or the ores
  • For the drives and stopes, the rocks and ores exhibited good stability and support was not used in any tunnels/drives
  • Even in the shallow tunnels, neither obvious deformation of the tunnel nor creep of the rock was found, indicating long-term stability of the excavations
  • For future expansion, preventative ground support measures should be installed in key areas such as the newly proposed vertical shaft, the “horse-head gate,” the main water pump house and the underground transformer room

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